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Poznejte impozantní katedrálu a hrad ve městě Durham

18. prosinec 2014 Reklama

Velká Británie představuje mnoho velice zajímavých památek, hrad a katedrála ve městě Durham mezi ně rozhodně patří. Toto významné město se nachází na severovýchodě Anglie. Nad řekou Wear na nejvyšším místě tohoto města se tyčí nádherná katedrála, kterou mnozí považují za nejhezčí v celé Anglii. Naproti katedrále lze spatřit Durham Castle, tedy sídlo prestižní Univerzity of Durham. Obě tyto budovy díky své obrovské historické hodnotě patří od roku 1987 na Seznam světového dědictví UNESCO.

zdroj Wikipediazdroj Wikipedia

Střípky z historie města

Chrám i hrad náleží k perlám světové architektury. Katedrála pochází z roku 1093 a lze ji označit jako nejlépe dochovanou ukázku normanského slohu. Na první pohled zaujme klenba její lodi, která je údajně nejstarší gotickou klenbou v Evropě. Katedrála však není jediná velice zajímavá památka, v její blízkosti lze zhlédnout hrad, který byl také postavený v 11. století Normany.

Původně se zde nacházela dřevěná stavba, která sloužila k uložení ostatků svatého Cuthberta. První dostupné zprávy pocházejí už z roku 995. Tato hrobka však byla později zničena v době vlády Jindřicha VIII., který si oblíbil Aglikánskou církev a křesťanské památky pro něho byly překážkou. V 17. století sloužila katedrála jako vězení pro skotské zajatce po bitvě u Dunbaru. Zemřelo zde až na 3 tisíce vězňů.

V roce 1832 zde byla založena Durhamská univerzita a od té doby je hrad využíván studenty. Studenti zde mohou nejen bydlet, ale také se stravovat. Durhamská katedrála je natolik zajímavá, že ji čas od času využívají také filmaři. Spatřit jste ji mohli například ve filmech o Harrym Potterovi.

Návštěva města Durham

Do centra města se můžete dostat přes tři starobylé mosty. Tyto mosty jsou vyhrazené pro chodce a ukrývají dlouholetou historii. První z mostů nese název Prebend´s Footbridge a pochází z roku 1777. Most vás dovede na jižní část nádvoří. Na konci vyúsťuje na poloostrov, kde jsou umístěny významné sochy od Colina Winbourna. Druhý most s názvem Kingsgate Footbridge pochází z let 1962 – 1963. Třetí most umožní cestu do východní části města a jmenuje se Elvet Footbridge. Západně od tohoto místa se nachází oblast, která se nazývá Viaduct. Název oblast dostala po dominantě města.

Durhamská katedrály

Bez pochyby nejvýznamnější památkou je místní katedrála, která vás oslní svými nezaměnitelnými architektonickými prvky. Promítá se zde 900 let stará historie, kterou lze obdivovat na sloupech, pilířích i klenbě. Doslova jedinečný je routový či klikatkový dekor na kamenných pilířích v chrámové lodi. Tento dekor je důkazem vlivu maurů. Chrámovou loď zdobí žebrové křížové klenby, které představují hlavní prvek gotické architektury.

Durhamský hrad

Hned naproti nádherné katedrály se tyčí Durhamský hrad, jehož stavba byla započata již v roce 1072. Návštěvníky zaujme hned vstupní objekt hradu, jemuž dominuje vnější oblouk a nese stropy normanské kamenné dekorace. V pozdějším období byl celý objekt přestavěn ve stylu takzvané pseudogotiky. Největší zajímavostí je, že od roku 1837 zde sídlí University College, což je první fakulta durhamské univerzity.

Informace pro turisty

Pokud budete mít zájem, můžete zdolat 325 schodů a vystoupat na věž katedrály. Vstupné činí 5 Eur, ale výhled, který se vám naskytne, rozhodně stojí zato. Uvidíte řeku i celé okolí Durhamu. Před katedrálou si můžete prohlédnout náhrobky. Do Durhamu se dostanete autobusem (trajektem nebo přes Eurotunel), můžete sem dojet také autem (přibližně 20 hodin cesty). Nejrychlejší doprava je samozřejmě letadlem.

.

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Autor Martina Richterová

Autor: Martina Richterová

Autorka žije v Praze. Psaní se věnuje dva roky. Mezi hlavní zájmy patří čtení, cestování. Je maminkou tříletého syna.


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